They are afraid to repeat themselves. You should make it clear that your reader may have dealt with the subject in the past, but will hardly be acquainted with the matter in detail now. Therefore, it is important that you talk about the hypotheses developed at the beginning and briefly outline what you have studied to answer them. Writing a conclusion proves that you can work scientifically and your homework offers the reader an important added value.

Abstract your work

In the main part you are in the middle of the action – no matter whether you analyze a poem or explain an experiment: you move on the content level. If you write the introduction and the conclusion, take a distanced view. This already starts with writing your work in a scientific style and, if possible, avoiding sentences with “me” or “man”.

Depending on the course of study (usually rather humanities subjects), a personal opinion in the conclusion may be desired. However, this has to be clarified in advance with the teacher or lecturer. In the meantime, you can speak of yourself in the third person, which means: “The draftsman believes that there is an urgent need for research in this area.” In the following, you will explain to the reader what decisions you made and why.

For example: “As could be shown, the term XY is historically biased. In modern research, it is no longer used, so was renounced to renounce and instead worked with YZ. “Lists, before you write your conclusion, the evidence for your results in the right order in a nutshell, so do not forget important Point.

Summarize your results

This is where the actual conclusion begins: You come back to your research question formulated in the introduction and briefly review your core ideas from the main part. The goal is to make the reader understand the topic and the problem, without having to read the complete housework. Present your results and answer the research question.

Arrange your results in the research context

At this point in their conclusion, you reflect critically on your own work and place it in the research context. To what extent do you make an important contribution to the topic? Do you get the same results as other scientists? Are you coming to completely different results?

It has to be said that working in science and technology subjects has a more practical use, while humanities subjects tend to contribute to scientific theory. Grateful for this part of the conclusion are scientific controversies, to which you can relate with the help of your work position, such as: “In the debate between Meier and Müller to XY this important point is ignored …”

Draw conclusions from the results

What can be deduced from the results? What not? At this point open questions or problems are described, such as a thin literature or failed attempts. Important: No result is a result! It is at the housework (and certainly not at the conclusion write) that everything goes smoothly. Your work will be good if you follow the guidelines.

Give an outlook

Depending on your subject or degree program, you may want to give an outlook. That is, you formulate which aspects could also be considered in this work. Usually it’s more of a side issue – getting the most pressing question at the end of your job would rather make you think you’re wrong.

However, it is clear that you can not pick up on all aspects of your work, no matter how much time you have until the deadline. To limit oneself is also an art. A term paper with a page specification of 10 to 15 pages should not suddenly be 30 pages long and a bachelor thesis should not have the scope of a doctoral thesis. However, do not make the mistake of suddenly formulating new ideas that have not at least been briefly mentioned in the main section.

General tips for writing

Your work will be written in the present tense, only the part of the work in which you refer to aspects that you have already described is written in the preterite. Example: “The ranking of the company XY from the year 2008 shows a huge leap forward …” / “As already stated above, the ranking of the company XY from the year 2008 …”

Only when the rest of the work is done, you should write the conclusion, otherwise it may happen that you do not list important results, which are still missing in the main part.

In summary, do not formulate new examples to substantiate your statements, nor do quotations from other authors.